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Sana'a Manuskrip

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Re: Sana'a Manuskrip

Post by abu hanan on Mon Nov 05, 2012 8:20 pm

baris pertamax ;




قُلْ أَمَرَ رَبِّي بِالْقِسْطِ ۖ وَأَقِيمُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ عِنْدَ

tanpa harakat;
قل امر ربى بالقسط واقيموو جو هكم عند

Katakanlah: "Tuhanku menyuruh menjalankan keadilan" Dan (katakanlah): "Luruskanlah muka (diri)mu

apabila (sebage contoh) ;
قل
diberikan harakat seperti = قَلََ akan merubah arti karena
Qala = berkata.
Qul = katakanlah

sehingga arti ayat yang Katakanlah: "Tuhanku menyuruh menjalankan keadilan" berubah menjadi Berkatalah (pembicara/pihak pertama) ; "Tuhanku menyuruh menjalankan keadilan"

dalam keseluruhan per kata di dalam al quran penggunaan Qul = katakanlah adalah PERINTAH sedangkan aplikasi Qala = berkata lebih sering pada ketika allah mengisahkan peristiwa di masa lalu...



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Re: Sana'a Manuskrip

Post by abu hanan on Sat Aug 17, 2013 10:31 pm



وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الْأَسْمَاءَ كُلَّهَا ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَلَائِكَةِ فَقَالَ أَنْبِئُونِي بِأَسْمَاءِ هَٰؤُلَاءِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

قَالُوا سُبْحَانَكَ لَا عِلْمَ لَنَا إِلَّا مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ

قَالَ يَا آدَمُ أَنْبِئْهُمْ بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ ۖ فَلَمَّا أَنْبَأَهُمْ بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُلْ لَكُمْ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنْتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ أَبَىٰ وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ

وَقُلْنَا يَا آدَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنْتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ وَكُلَا مِنْهَا رَغَدًا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلَا تَقْرَبَا هَٰذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ

فَأَزَلَّهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ عَنْهَا فَأَخْرَجَهُمَا مِمَّا كَانَا فِيهِ ۖ وَقُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ ۖ وَلَكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمَتَاعٌ إِلَىٰ حِينٍ

فَتَلَقَّىٰ آدَمُ مِنْ رَبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ

قُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا مِنْهَا جَمِيعًا ۖ فَإِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُمْ مِنِّي هُدًى فَمَنْ تَبِعَ هُدَايَ فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ


qs 2/31-38


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Re: Sana'a Manuskrip

Post by abu hanan on Sat Aug 17, 2013 10:43 pm

@abu hanan wrote:

وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الْأَسْمَاءَ كُلَّهَا ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَلَائِكَةِ فَقَالَ أَنْبِئُونِي بِأَسْمَاءِ هَٰؤُلَاءِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

قَالُوا سُبْحَانَكَ لَا عِلْمَ لَنَا إِلَّا مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ

قَالَ يَا آدَمُ أَنْبِئْهُمْ بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ ۖ فَلَمَّا أَنْبَأَهُمْ بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُلْ لَكُمْ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنْتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ أَبَىٰ وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ

وَقُلْنَا يَا آدَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنْتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ وَكُلَا مِنْهَا رَغَدًا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلَا تَقْرَبَا هَٰذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ

فَأَزَلَّهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ عَنْهَا فَأَخْرَجَهُمَا مِمَّا كَانَا فِيهِ ۖ وَقُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ ۖ وَلَكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمَتَاعٌ إِلَىٰ حِينٍ

فَتَلَقَّىٰ آدَمُ مِنْ رَبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ

قُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا مِنْهَا جَمِيعًا ۖ فَإِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُمْ مِنِّي هُدًى فَمَنْ تَبِعَ هُدَايَ فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ


qs 2/31-38
tanpa harakat..

وعلم آدم الأسماء كلها ثم عرضهم على الملائكة فقال أنبئوني بأسماء هؤلاء إن كنتم صادقين

قالوا سبحانك لا علم لنا إلا ما علمتنا إنك أنت العليم الحكيم

قال يا آدم أنبئهم بأسمائهم فلما أنبأهم بأسمائهم قال ألم أقل لكم إني أعلم غيب السماوات والأرض وأعلم ما تبدون وما كنتم تكتمون

وإذ قلنا للملائكة اسجدوا لآدم فسجدوا إلا إبليس أبى واستكبر وكان من الكافرين

وقلنا يا آدم اسكن أنت وزوجك الجنة وكلا منها رغدا حيث شئتما ولا تقربا هذه الشجرة فتكونا من الظالمين

فأزلهما الشيطان عنها فأخرجهما مما كانا فيه وقلنا اهبطوا بعضكم لبعض عدو ولكم في الأرض مستقر ومتاع إلى حين

فتلقى آدم من ربه كلمات فتاب عليه إنه هو التواب الرحيم

قلنا اهبطوا منها جميعا فإما يأتينكم مني هدى فمن تبع هداي فلا خوف عليهم ولا هم يحزنون


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Re: Sana'a Manuskrip

Post by abu hanan on Sun Aug 18, 2013 10:19 am

Copy manuskrip ini hanyalah sebuah 'koleksi', sehingga Sana'a codex adalah 'koleksi naskah dari Sana'a, Yaman.Manuskrip ini bukan bagian penting untuk membuat kesimpulan bahwa Al Quran telah dipalsukan atau telah mengalami moderasi/editing.

Sana'a mencatat standarisasi ortografis dari menyalin dari bahasa Arab. Dengan kata lain, Al-Qur'an belum diubah atau rusak, tetapi diawetkan dalam bahasa aslinya dan untuk melakukannya akan menjaga teks dengan menyalin secara akurat.Kamsut sayah,manuskrip ini adalah karya tulis ulang/salinan yang berfungsi untuk memudahkan pembacaan.Beberapa suku akan mengucapkan kata حتی (hatta) sebagai عتی ('atta), dan صراط (sirat) sebagai سراط (sirat), dll, dan ini adalah akar penyebab dari banyak varian yang dikenal dalam zikir.
Demikian huruf ا, و, ي memiliki fungsi ganda konsonan dan vokal, seperti dalam bahasa Latin.Seperti kita katakan home dengan vokal o panjang dengan lafal hoome dan seterusnyah.

Pertanyaan tentang bagaimana penulis Arab awal dan penyalin menggunakan tiga huruf memerlukan perhatian khusus. Metode mereka, meskipun membingungkan bagi kita sekarang, cukup mudah untuk mereka.Pelestarian Qur'an tidak terbatas pada tulisan, melainkan termasuk hifz atau menghafal.


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Re: Sana'a Manuskrip

Post by dee-nee on Thu Apr 13, 2017 11:39 am

http://www.islamic-awareness.org/Quran/Text/Mss/soth.html

In 1965 heavy rains damaged the roof construction of the Western Library in the Great Mosque of Ṣanʿāʾ – a mosque established by a companion of Prophet Muhammad. Qādī Hussain bin Ahmed al-Sayaghy, then Director of Administration at the Yemen National Museum, instructed an examination of the area concerned be carried out to assess the extent of the damage. During this time a forgotten about storeroom with no access door and a single window was discovered to contain a substantial cache of used Arabic manuscripts, almost all being ancient manuscripts of the Qur'an spanning the first few Islamic centuries. Before repairs to the storeroom were complete, five or more sacks of Qur'anic manuscripts were removed and deposited in the Awqāf Library. Over time the curator of the library sold off the contents of the sacks unlawfully with some of the manuscripts ending up in Western libraries.

Pada tahun 1965 hujan lebat merusak konstruksi atap Western Library di Masjid Agung San‘ ā - sebuah masjid yang didirikan oleh seorang sahabat Nabi Muhammad. Qadhi Hussain bin Ahmed al-Sayaghy, Direktur Administrasi di Museum Nasional Yaman, menginstruksikan pemeriksaan daerah yang bersangkutan untuk menilai tingkat kerusakan. Waktu ini ditemukan sebuah gudang tanpa akses pintu dan jendela, yang berisi kumpulan naskah penting dengan menggunakan manuskrip Arab, hampir semua adalah naskah kuno Al-Qur'an dari abad pertama Islam. Sebelum perbaikan gudang selesai, lebih dari lima kantung naskah Al-Qur'an telah dihapus dan disimpan di Perpustakaan Awqāf. Seiring waktu kurator perpustakaan kemudian menjual isi kantung2 tersebut dengan beberapa naskah secara tidak sah, yang berakhir di perpustakaan Barat.

In 1972 in order to consolidate the north-west corner of the external wall to the mosque, it was necessary to remove part of the roof to allow progress to be made in the restoration and renovation works. As the storeroom was also located in this area the remaining manuscripts were permanently removed consisting of some twenty sacks and placed in the National Museum.[1] Reminiscent of the adventures of Indiana Jones, the re-opening of the storeroom was photographed almost immediately after its occurrence, the Italian Islamic archaeologist Paolo Costa proudly kneeling in front of the cache of manuscripts cradling a folio of the Qur'an.[2] After noticing the contents of the sacks were gradually diminishing, the Yemeni authorities realised these valuable Qur'anic manuscripts were yet again being sold off piecemeal. Consequently in an attempt to prevent further corruption, the remaining manuscripts were eventually retransferred back to the Great Mosque. At the international level an urgent call for the preservation of these manuscripts would soon gain widespread attention.

Pada tahun 1972 dalam rangka konsolidasi sudut utara-barat dinding luar masjid, perlu dilakukan pemindahan bagian atap untuk kemajuan restorasi dan renovasi. Dan karena gudang juga terletak di bagian ini, maka naskah yang tersisa dipindahkan secara permanen yang terdiri dari beberapa puluh kantung dan ditempatkan di Museum Nasional. Seperti petualangan Indiana Jones, pembukaan kembali gudang tersebut segera difoto, dan arkeolog Islam Italia Paolo Costa dengan bangga berlutut di depan naskah yang memuat folio Al Qur'an tersebut. Setelah menyadari bahwa isi dari kantung2 tersebut sudah semakin berkurang, pihak berwenang Yaman menyadari bahwa naskah Al-Qur'an yang berharga ini telah dijual sedikit demi sedikit. Dan sebagai upaya untuk mencegah korupsi lebih lanjut, naskah yang tersisa akhirnya ditransfer kembali ke Masjid Agung. Pada tingkat internasional, seruan untuk melakukan pelestarian naskah-naskah tersebut segera mendapatkan perhatian luas.

A Colloquium on the Islamic City organised by the World of Islam Festival Trust, sponsored by UNESCO, was held at the Middle East Centre, Faculty of Oriental Studies, University of Cambridge, in July 1976. Drawing a wide variety of experts from both the Muslim and non-Muslim world, a number of specific research activities were recommended, amongst which was highlighted the pressing need to conserve the rich corpus of Qur'anic texts discovered in the Great Mosque of Ṣanʿāʾ.[3]

Pada sebuah seminar di Islamic City yang diselenggarakan oleh World of Islam Festival Trust, disponsori oleh UNESCO, dan diadakan di Timur Tengah Centre, Fakultas Studi Oriental, Universitas Cambridge, pada bulan Juli 1976. Dilakukan diskusi secara luas oleh berbagai ahli dunia Muslim dan non-Muslim, dimana sejumlah kegiatan penelitian yang spesifik direkomendasikan, khususnya menyoroti kebutuhan mendesak untuk melestarikan corpus kaya teks Alquran yang ditemukan di Masjid Agung Sana


Apparently with no indigenous expertise to conserve the badly damaged manuscripts, Qādī Ismāʿīl al-Akwá, President of the General Organization Of Antiquities and Libraries initiated the effort to secure external specialists to conserve the manuscripts.[4] As word spread of the find, Denmark contacted the Yemeni government with the offer to preserve the manuscripts on the condition they were sent to Denmark where the restoration work would take place. This offer was rejected by the Yemeni authorities who preferred the manuscripts to remain in the country.

Rupanya tanpa memiliki dasar keahlian apapun untuk melestarikan naskah yang rusak parah tersebut, Qadhi Isma il al-Akwa, Presiden Organisasi Jenderal Antiquities dan Perpustakaan memprakarsai upaya pelestarian naskah tersebut dilakukan oleh para spesialis eksternal (ahli dari luar). Dan ketika penemuan ini menyebar, Denmark menghubungi pemerintah Yaman dan menawarkan pelestarian naskah-naskah tersebut sesuai dengan kondisinya ketika dikirim ke Denmark, di mana pekerjaan restorasi akan berlangsung. Penawaran ini ditolak oleh pemerintah Yaman yang lebih memilih naskah tersebut tetap di negara itu.

Finally, after much deliberation, al-Akwá authorised a special project funded by the cultural section of the Foreign ministry of West Germany, to restore and catalogue the manuscripts on location in Yemen. After the signing of a ‘bilateral’ agreement titled ‘Arrangement Between The Government Of The Federal Republic Of Germany And The Government Of The Yemen Arab Republic Concerning The Restoration And Cataloguing Of Arabic Manuscripts’,[5] work took place beginning in the autumn of 1980, the overall director of the project being Gerd-R Puin. The chief conservator Ursula Dreibholz joined the project in 1982. Gerd-R. Puin was subsequently replaced by his colleague Hans-Casper Graf von Bothmer, an art historian from the Universität des Saarlandes, who remained director until the end of the project in the final months of 1989.[6]

Akhirnya, dengan adanya banyak pertimbangan, al-Akwa meresmikan sebuah proyek khusus yang didanai oleh divisi Kebudayaan, Kementerian Luar Negeri Jerman Barat, untuk melakukan restorasi dan membuat katalog naskah di Yaman. Setelah penandatanganan perjanjian 'bilateral' berjudul 'Perjanjian Antara Pemerintah Republik Federal Jerman Dan Pemerintah Republik Yaman Mengenai Restorasi Dan Pengkatalokan Naskah Arab', pekerjaan dimulai pada awal pada musim gugur 1980, di bawah direktur Gerd-R Puin. Kepala Konservator Ursula Dreibholz bergabung dengan proyek ini pada tahun 1982. Gerd-R. Puin kemudian digantikan oleh Hans-Casper Graf von Bothmer, seorang sejarawan dari Universität des Saarlandes, yang tetap menjadi direktur sampai akhir proyek yaitu pada bulan-bulan terakhir tahun 1989.

It was in the midst of the conservation project the existence of this manuscript – now known as Ṣanʿāʾ I – was made known to the general public with the publication of Maṣāḥif Ṣanʿāʾ in 1985, an exhibition catalogue presenting some of the findings of the project. A single palimpsest folio from the part of the codex located in Dār al-Makhṭūtāt (i.e., DAM 01-27.1), folio 21a according to Sadeghi and Goudarzi’s classification, was displayed along with some brief comments regarding the script and its contents. The folio was tentatively dated to the first half of the 1st century of hijra.[7] A few years later Hans-Casper Graf von Bothmer showcased a bifolio from this codex, folio 22a according to Sadeghi and Goudarzi’s classification. Discussing the script, contents and the fact it was palimpsest, von Bothmer tentatively dated the folio also to the first half of the 1st century of hijra.[8] After the work had been completed, the assessment concluded there were almost 1,000 unique copies of the Qur'an comprising approximately 15,000 parchment fragments, with less than 1% of the find belonging to non-Qur'anic material.[9] Funding for the project ran out before a catalogue or even a handlist could be compiled.[10] Perhaps the most outstanding realisation was that a small percentage of these Qur'anic manuscripts displayed signs of great antiquity, allowing them to be placed with a degree of certitude into the 1st century of hijra.

Pada pertengahan proyek konservasi ini, keberadaan naskah - yang sekarang dikenal sebagai San ā I – dipublikasikan kepada masyarakat umum oleh penerbit Maṣāḥif San ā pada tahun 1985, berupa sebuah pameran katalog yang menyajikan beberapa temuan dari proyek. Sebuah folio palimpsest folio dari bagian naskah kuno tersebut terdapat pada Dār al-Makhṭūtāt (yaitu, DAM 01-27,1), yaitu folio 21a menurut klasifikasi Sadeghi dan Goudarzi, yang ditampilkan bersama dengan beberapa komentar singkat mengenai script dan isinya. Folio itu secara tentatif tertanggal pada paruh pertama abad ke-1 hijrah. Beberapa tahun kemudian Hans-Casper Graf von Bothmer memamerkan sebuah bifolio dari naskah tersebut, folio 22a menurut klasifikasi Sadeghi dan Goudarzi. Mengenai script tersebut, isi dan fakta bahwa folio itu adalah palimpsest, von Bothmer memberikan tanggal (tentative) dari folio tersebut yaitu juga pada paruh pertama abad ke-1 hijrah.

It was also discovered about one hundred manuscripts contained elaborate decorations. It would appear with the publication of these folios the importance of this codex became impressed upon those studying the most ancient Qur’anic manuscripts. It is from the context thus described that the story of codex Ṣanʿāʾ I emerges.

Setelah pekerjaan selesai, kajian tersebut menyimpulkan bahwa terdapat hampir 1.000 salinan unik (berbeda) dari Al-Qur'an yang terdiri dari sekitar 15.000 fragmen perkamen, dan kurang dari 1% berasal dari materi non-Qur'an. Pendanaan proyek tersebut terhenti sebelum katalog atau bahkan handlist bisa diselesaikan. Mungkin kenyataan yang paling menonjol adalah bahwa hanya dalam persentase kecil dari naskah-naskah Al-Qur'an tersebut yang menunjukkan tanda-tanda sangat kuno, yang kemungkinan bisa dipastian berasal dari abad ke-1 hijrah. Telah ditemukan pula sekitar seratus manuskrip berisi dekorasi rumit. Seiring dengan publikasi mengenai folio tersebut, pentingnya codex ini telah mengesankan mereka yang mempelajari naskah-naskah Al-Qur'an kuno, dilihat dari konteks yang menjelaskan munculnya kisah Codex San ā I


In October 1992, the latter instance of Sotheby's (London) biannual sale of Islamic art, a folio from Ṣanʿāʾ I was put under the hammer fetching a princely sum of £159,500 (including buyer's premium) around five times the estimated asking price. The experts-in-charge of the sale were Nabil Saidi and Marcus Fraser. At the time, they noted the ‘similarity’ between this folio and the folio displayed in the exhibition catalogue without ever fully describing their intimate connection.[11] A further folio from the manuscript was sold at Sotheby’s (London) as Lot 31 in October 1993.[12] The auctioning off of parts of the manuscript lulled momentarily, and, beginning in 1996 until 1997, realising the importance of the find, the German team which enjoyed exclusive access to the site, began to microfilm as much of the material as they could totalling more than 35,000 images,[13] after being inspired to do so based on an observation made by Christoph Luxenberg at a lecture given by him in 1996.[14]

Pada bulan Oktober 1992, diadakan lelang dua tahunan tentang Kesenian Islam oleh rumah lelang Sotheby, London, folio dari san ā terjual dengan total £ 159,500 (termasuk kepada pembeli utama) yaitu sekitar lima kali dari harga awal. Para ahli yang berwenang dalam pelelangan tersebut adalah Nabil Saidi dan Marcus Fraser. Pada saat itu, mereka mencatat 'kesamaan' antara folio tersebut dengan folio yang ditampilkan dalam katalog pameran tanpa pernah sepenuhnya menggambarkan hubungan mereka satu sama lain. Sebuah folio berikutnya dari naskah itu dijual di Sotheby (London) pada Lot 31 di bulan Oktober 1993. Pelelangan berhenti sebentar, dan dimulai lagi tahun 1996 sampai 1997, dan menyadari pentingnya penemuan tersebut, tim Jerman yang mempunyai akses eksklusif ke situs tersebut, mulai membuat mikrofilm sebanyak jumlah manuscript dengan total lebih dari 35.000 gambar, hal tersebut terinspirasi oleh sebuah observasi yang dibuat oleh Christoph Luxenberg pada kuliah yang diberikannya pada tahun 1996


Auction activities resumed pace and yet another folio of the manuscript was sold at Bonhams (London) as Lot 13 in October 2000.[15] It was not until the folio sold at Sotheby’s in 1992 was put under the hammer yet again at Christies (London) as Lot 12 in May 2001, that the genetic connection between all the folios just discussed would soon become public knowledge. Renowned antiquarian Sam Fogg subsequently acquired this folio and it promptly made its way into their Islamic Calligraphy catalogue published in 2003. For the first time it was explicitly stated that Maṣāḥif Ṣanʿāʾ 1985, Sotheby’s 1992, Sotheby’s 1993 and Bonhams 2000 were folios originating from the same manuscript,[16] namely Ṣanʿāʾ I.

Kegiatan lelang dimulai lagi, dan folio lainnya dari manuscript tersebut dijual di Bonhams (London) pada Lot 13 di Oktober 2000. Tidak terjualnya sebuah folio di Sotheby pada tahun 1992 , namun berhasil terjual di Christies (London) pada Lot 12 pada Mei 2001, dan hubungan genetik antara semua folio telah menjadi informasi publik. Antikuarium yang terkenal, Sam Fogg, selanjutnya memperoleh folio ini dan segera membuat katalog Kaligrafi Islam yang diterbitkan pada tahun 2003. Untuk pertama kalinya secara eksplisit diyatakan bahwa Maṣāḥif San ʿ ā ʾ 1985, Sotheby 1992, 1993 Sotheby dan Bonhams 2000 adalah folio yang berasal dari naskah yang sama, yaitu Sanā I.

In October 2003 this particular folio (i.e., David 86/2003) and the one preceding it (i.e., Sotheby’s 1993 / Stanford 2007) were the subject of some detailed analysis and discussion by Yasin Dutton at the 3rd Biennial Conference on the Qur’an held at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. Discussing the readings of the scriptio inferior text (i.e., washed-away text), he suggested that they originated from the pre-‘Uthmanic times.[17]

Pada bulan Oktober 2003, folio khusus ini (contohnya, David 86/2003) dan satu folio yang mendahuluinya (yaitu, 1993 Sotheby / Stanford 2007) telah menjadi topik beberapa analisa dan diskusi oleh Yasin Dutton pada Biennial Conference on the Qur’an ke-3, diselenggarakan di School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, yang membahas pembacaan teks scriptio inferior (yaitu, teks yang sudah terhapus), Yasin mengatakan bahwa naskah2 tersebut berasal dari era pra-Utsmani.

In 2004 Sergio Noja Noseda had an article published describing his visit to Ṣanʿāʾ in 2002, in order to examine, organise and have photographed those manuscripts that would become part of the forthcoming volumes of his Sources De La Transmission Manuscrite Du Texte Coranique.[18] Professor Emeritus of Arabic Language and Literature at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, he founded the ‘Amari Project’ whose goal was to put in the hands of western scholars scale facsimile reproductions of the earliest Qur'anic manuscripts known to him and his colleagues with the hope of creating a ‘critical edition’ of the Qur’an.[19]

Pada tahun 2004 Sergio Noja Noseda menulis artikel yang menceritakan kunjungannya ke Sanā pada tahun 2002, dalam rangka memeriksa, menata dan memotret naskah-naskah untuk menjadi bagian volume selanjutnya dari Sources De La Transmission Manuscrite Du Texte Coranique karangannya. Profesor Emeritus dari Fakultas Bahasa dan Sastra Arab di Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, mendirikan ‘Amari Project’ yang tujuannya adalah, atas nama Sarjana Barat, ia mereproduksi naskah Al-Qur'an yang paling awal yang sudah diketahuinya dan rekan-rekannya dengan harapan dapat mengkritisi Al-Qur'an.

Writing his obituary a few years later, Giuliana Malpezzi of Centro di Cultura Italia Asia, reported that Noseda’s visit, in cooperation with the L’Académie Française, was made possible by special Yemeni presidential decree and that he was also permitted to have some samples of the manuscripts taken for the purposes of radiocarbon dating.[20] Made known for the first time, Noseda described in detail the contents of the catalogued thirty-two folios from a palimpsest Qur'an – DAM 01-27.1 – still present at Dār al-Makhṭutāt[21] as well as listing other ancient ḥijāzī codices such as DAM 01-32.1,[22] DAM 01-18.3 (sixteen folios),[23] DAM 01-29.1,[24] DAM 01-30.1,[25] DAM 01-20.7 (one folio), DAM 01-28.1 (sixty folios),[26] DAM 01-25.1 (twenty-nine folios).[27]

Setelah menulis obituari beberapa tahun kemudian, Giuliana Malpezzi dari Centro di Cultura Italia Asia, melaporkan bahwa kunjungan Noseda, bekerja sama dengan L'Académie Française, bisa terjadi karena adanya ijin dari presidensial Yaman dan bahwa ia juga diizinkan untuk memiliki beberapa sampel naskah yang diambil untuk keperluan radiokarbon. Untuk pertama kalinya, Noseda menjelaskan secara rinci isi dari tiga puluh dua folio dari palimpsest Qur'an - DAM 01-27,1 - masih ada di Dār al-Makhṭutāt serta daftar naskah Hijazi kuno lainnya seperti DAM 01-32,1, [22] DAM 01-18,3 (enam belas folio) , [23] DAM 01-29,1, [24] DAM 01-30,1, [25] DAM 01-20,7 (satu folio), DAM 01-28,1 (enam puluh folio), [26] DAM 01-25,1 (dua puluh sembilan folio )

The same year Noseda’s visit to Ṣanʿāʾ was published, researcher Razan Ghassan Hamdoun submitted her master’s thesis titled “The Qur'anic Manuscripts In Ṣanʿāʾ From The First Century Hijra And The Preservation Of The Qur’an” to Al-Yemenia University.[28] Utilising images provided by her father Professor Ghassan Hamdoun,[29] the main subject of her thesis was the analysis and discussion of one early manuscript of the Qur’an located in al-Maktaba al-Sharqiyya (i.e., the Eastern Library), the Great Mosque, Ṣanʿāʾ. She noted, amongst other things, the manuscript was written on parchment and consisted of 72 plates (i.e., 40 folios).

Pada tahun yang sama kunjungan Noseda ke Sanā ini diterbitkan, peneliti Razan Ghassan Hamdoun mengajukan tesis master-nya berjudul "“The Qur'anic Manuscripts In Ṣanʿāʾ From The First Century Hijra And The Preservation Of The Qur’an" Al-Yemenia Universitas [28]. Memanfaatkan gambar disediakan oleh ayahnya Profesor Ghassan Hamdoun, [29] subjek utama dari tesisnya adalah analisis dan pembahasan dari satu naskah awal Qur'an terletak di al-Maktaba al-Sharqiyya (yaitu, Timur Library), Masjid Agung, SAN ʿ ā ʾ. Dia mencatat, antara lain, naskah itu ditulis pada perkamen dan terdiri dari 72 piring (yaitu, 40 folio).

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Re: Sana'a Manuskrip

Post by dee-nee on Thu Apr 13, 2017 11:40 am

belum selesai diterjemahkan .... hehehehehehe

It had the approximate dimensions of 35 cm x 26.5 cm, though the size of each folio was variable across the manuscript. On average there were 28 lines per page and across a selection of 5 folios there were 24-32 lines per page, but that it could be even less or more on some pages.[30] Unknown to Hamdoun, she had made known the most remarkable manuscript ‘(re)discovery’ of the Qur’an since 1965/72. These 40 folios belonged to the same manuscript as DAM 01-27.1, collectively referred to today as codex Ṣanʿāʾ I. Hamdoun was not alone in being unaware of the importance of her edition in relation to the other parts of manuscript extant. No specialist in the West in their publications was aware that these 40 folios belonged to Ṣanʿāʾ I at the time of the submission of her thesis until 2012. Indeed, many publications even seemed unaware that DAM 01-27.1 comprised dozens of folios as it was only in 2004 courtesy of Noseda that a full listing of the folios and their contents was published. In any event, individual folios still continued to be the subject of detailed examination.

In 2005, the scriptio inferior text of the Sam Fogg folio (i.e., David 86/2003) including one of its sister folios (i.e., Bonhams 2000) was studied by Alba Fedeli, a pupil of Noseda and formerly the Director of Fondazione Ferni Noja Noseda, who confirmed some of the readings were of Ibn Mas‘ūd as well as some other companions as reported in the Islamic traditions.[31] Fedeli established no more than what the scribe who washed away this text around fourteen centuries ago already knew: the initial text contained on this parchment was not in accordance with the Qur'anic text collected by ‘Uthman. The author noted it was baseless to assert this folio was one of Ibn Mas‘ūd's or a leaf from one of the Qur'ans ‘Uthman distributed. However, suggesting as she did, that this folio could have originated from the 10th century (4th century hijra), the author left anyone with a passing knowledge of the chronology of Arabic palaeography scratching their heads. On the other hand, Déroche stated this folio could be one of the oldest examples of an Arabic palimpsest and that it was apparently in use sometime in the 1st century AH / 7th century CE.[32] The palimpsest manuscripts of the Qur'an are rare. The only other palimpsests that have been published are the ‘Mingana Palimpsest’ and DAM 18-?.a.[33] The Sam Fogg folio, analysed earlier by Dutton and Fedeli, was discussed (amongst others) at a Symposium on Islamic Calligraphy held at Vortragssaal, Kunstgewerbemuseum, Kulturforum, Berlin which drew together six internationally recognised experts in the field of Islamic calligraphy; some notable attendees included François Déroche and Sheila Blair as well as others. The symposium inaugurated the exhibition Ink and Gold: Masterpieces of Islamic Calligraphy, held at the Museum für Islamische Kunst (Museum of Islamic Art), Berlin, in July-August of 2006. Held in collaboration with Sam Fogg, this exhibition charted the development of Islamic calligraphy from its beginnings in the 7th century Arabia onwards. The stated catalogue accompanying this exhibition was published on behalf of Sam Fogg in 2006,[34] wherein it was stated the folio now resided at the David Collection, Copenhagen. In this publication the date of the folio was more cautiously given as mid- to late 7th century as opposed to mid-7th century in the previous catalogue. The provenance of the folio was also extended to include Syria as well as the Ḥijāz.

In October 2007, scholars from Fondazione Ferni Noja Noseda visited Ṣanʿāʾ, the purpose of their mission to take high resolution photographs of selected manuscripts including ultraviolet images of DAM 01-27.1.[35] It seems as often as scholars visited Sana’a to study the folios located there, other folios from the manuscript would resurface and visit an auction house. So the monetary trade of Islamic heritage continued and the following year in 2008 another folio from this codex travelled to London and went under the hammer at Christies selling for a remarkable £2,200,000, around fifteen times the estimated asking price.[36] It was from this period onward part of Ṣanʿāʾ I, namely DAM 01-27.1 and the auction folios, became the subject of comparative in-depth studies and conferences.

Starting in 2008, Elisabeth Puin, wife of Gerd-R. Puin, began publishing a series of yearly articles on the scriptio inferior of DAM 01-27.1.[37] In her initial article she stated her study was based on small 6 x 6 black and white photographs of the manuscript, making reference that an independent set of photographs had been recently made by Noseda that might be published shortly as a facsimile reprint.[38] In July 2009 at a conference titled ‘Evidence For The Early History Of The Qur’an’ held at Stanford University, Asma Helali discussed the philological and literary aspects of DAM 01-27.1 whilst Behnam Sadeghi discussed the Sotheby’s 1993 / Stanford 2007 folio and its radiocarbon dating. In December 2009 at the 6th Biennial Conference on the Qur’an held at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Helali once again discussed the philological and literary aspects of DAM 01-27.1. In the same year, after a further examination of the microfilms, Puin published details of 5 newly identified folios belonging to DAM 01-27.1,[39] doubting whether Sotheby’s 1992 / David 86/2003 and Sotheby’s 1993 / Stanford 2007 were part of the same codex.[40] Subsequently in 2010 Sadeghi and Bergmann had published their article analysing the four auction folios, specifically the Sotheby’s 1993 / Stanford 2007 folio, where details were given of a radiocarbon study corroborating the early date already assigned to the manuscript. Analysis was done at the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) Laboratory at the University of Arizona.[41] According to Sadeghi and Bergmann, the results indicated that the parchment had a 68% (1σ) probability of belonging to the period between 614 CE to 656 CE. It had a 95% (2σ) probability of belonging to the period between 578 CE and 669 CE. The carbon dating was applicable to the scriptio inferior text.[42] The date which the scriptio superior text was written could be the first or second half of the 7th century or even the early 8th century (more generally the 1st century hijra). Sadeghi then pointed out, “For historical reasons, however, what is of greater interest is the probability that the parchment is older than a certain date. … The probability that the parchment is older than AD 646 is 75.1 %, or a three-to-one likelihood. It is highly probable therefore, that the Ṣanʿāʾ I manuscript was produced no more than 15 years after the death of the Prophet Muhammad.”[43] He concluded that the scriptio inferior text belonged to the period of the companions of Prophet Muhammad, whilst the scriptio superior text belonged to the ʿUthmānic tradition, and using stemmatics, the ʿUthmānic tradition was shown to give the most accurate reproduction of the Prophetic prototype.[44] Following up on his previous study, in 2012 Sadeghi and Goudarzi had published an article on Ṣanʿāʾ I,[45] giving for the first time a complete edition of the scriptio inferior that is undoubtedly the authoritative edition so far.[46] After providing an informative history of the manuscript and the field of Qur’anic studies, the authors evidenced numerous textual-critical conclusions – one of the most important being that the spread of the type of textual tradition represented by the scriptio inferior happened before the widespread propagation of the ʿUthmānic tradition in the mid-7th century; in turn, early Muslim tradition describing the existence of companion codices and the types of variants reported in them has now received textual confirmation.[47] They also discussed the ‘media and manuscripts’[48] and dispelled some common myths and misunderstandings regarding alleged Yemeni obstruction such as access to the manuscripts and their publication, pointing out that where obstruction did occur it was not the fault of Yemen.[49] The overall theme of ‘suppression’ though widely held is simply unjustified. A complete edition of the scriptio superior of DAM 01-27.1, also of great importance, is currently being undertaken and will be published along with a graphical reconstruction of the scriptio inferior.

Not long after Sadeghi and Goudarzi’s article appeared in the beginning of 2012, we received correspondence from a reader who had looked at Hamdoun’s thesis and suggested that the manuscript studied by her may be from the same codex as DAM 01-27.1, i.e., Ṣanʿāʾ I. We made further examination which revealed that it was indeed from the same codex. It is clear that all the four auction folios have been appropriated from this section of the manuscript and not DAM 01-27.1 as scholars previously thought. Interestingly folios 1, 2 and 3 of DAM 01-27.1 are interspersed between the mid-point and last quarter of the al-Maktaba al-Sharqiyya section. Intriguing questions such as how this section of the manuscript came to be separated from DAM 01-27.1, where, at what time and by who, are beyond the scope of this discussion. Referring to the lower text, Sadeghi and Goudarzi said of Ṣanʿāʾ I, “… at present the most important document for the history of the Qur’an. … it has the greatest potential of any known manuscript to shed light on the early history of the scripture.”[50] This hitherto unknown section of the manuscript made known by Hamdoun is a remarkable (re)discovery without parallel since 1965/72. Slightly larger than the section contained in Dār al-Makhṭūtāt, it is tremendously significant and provides additional very early material evidence of the text of the Qur’an and its subsequent collection and standardisation.

Contents
Noseda was the first to publish a full table of contents of the scriptio superior of DAM 01-27.1 informing us he was able to personally examine this manuscript on site at Ṣanʿāʾ.[51] Unfortunately Noseda made or reproduced a number of mistakes regarding the contents of quite a few folios. Folio 32 according to his classification is no longer considered part of the codex.[52] Subsequently Fedeli published the full contents of the scriptio superior of DAM 01-27.1 but did not give a folio-by-folio breakdown.[53] As part of a series of articles in 2009 and 2010, Puin gave successively updated contents of the scriptio superior and scriptio inferior[54] which were based on small 6 x 6 black and white photographs, understandably containing some errors.[55] At present the authoritative contents for the upper and lower text has been published by Sadeghi and Goudarzi in 2012.[56] For the purposes of consistency and to prevent confusion, we have reproduced the table below in accordance with the list of folios as ordered by Sadeghi and Goudarzi (i.e., according to scriptio superior text). For additional clarity the folio numbers assigned by Sadeghi and Goudarzi in their article are cross-referenced with those images already published. The folios from al-Maktaba al-Sharqiyya are inserted in their appropriate place in order to preserve the original sequence of the manuscript preserving verse order.

The codex now contains 80 folios [= al-Maktaba al-Sharqiyya, Ṣanʿāʾ (40) + DAM 01-27.1, Dār al-Makhṭūtāt, Ṣanʿāʾ (36) + Sotheby’s 1993 / Stanford 2007 (1) + Sotheby’s 1992 / David 86/2003 (1) + Bonhams 2000 (1) + Christies 2008 (1)].

GAMBAR

Not including the section of the manuscript located at al-Maktaba al-Sharqiyya, the scriptio inferior text of Ṣanʿāʾ I has eleven sūrah changeovers. They are sūrah 11, 8, 9 and 19, sūrah 12 to 18, sūrah 15 to 25, sūrah 20 to 21, sūrah 34 to 13, sūrah 39 to 40 and sūrah 63, 62, 89 and 90.[57] In its original state it would of course had many more. Despite the fact a few times there is a standard sūrah changeover, considering their placement as it would have been originally, all of them can be considered non-standard. Sadeghi and Goudarzi observed these changeovers somewhat resembled the ordering of the codex of Ubayy b. Kaʿb, though the sampling size was not large enough.[58] In any case, Sadeghi has shown that the scriptio inferior text cannot be identified with the codices known to us in the literary sources but instead it represents an independent codex, text type and textual tradition.[59] One could also add that such an explanation for the differences in sūrah orders (i.e., companion codices) though feasible, is not the only one. There exist numerous partially written copies of the Qur'an dating well into medieval times that contain a variety of sūrah orders.[60] This phenomenon, however, cannot be attributed to the alleged sequence of sūrahs supposedly found in codices attributed to various companions. Simple logic dictates that if a person or patron wished to copy or have copied a few or even many sūrahs for personal or public edification, he or they were not limited to copying sūrahs adjoining each other only. Thus one must carefully consider to what extent the manuscript in question was originally a full or partial copy.

The Use Of Ultraviolet Photography In Studying Palimpsests


Written in the ḥijāzī script, the above palimpsests have a few diacritical marks with no vocalization and sūrah titles. Underneath the bold, dark brown writing (i.e., scriptio superior), faint light brown traces of an earlier script (i.e., scriptio inferior) can be seen. This has been washed off to make the parchment reusable once again. The under-writing of palimpsest is, of course, often difficult to read, although modern tools such as ultraviolet photography are useful to highlight them.

GAMBAR

The principle of ultraviolet photography to detect under–writings and forgeries in the manuscripts and documents is quite simple. The ink used in writing early documents was iron–gallotannate type or simply "iron-gall". Iron-gall inks absorb long–wave ultraviolet radiation strongly without generation of fluorescence, so the legibility of faded, bleached or erased parts of handwriting can be improved considerably. On the other hand, the parchment exhibits a weak fluorescence under long-wave ultraviolet light. Traces of iron compounds on the parchment quench this fluorescence, and the areas formerly carrying ink (i.e., scriptio inferior) appear dark against a lighter background as observed in the above figure. Compare the above figure with images of palimpsests (e.g., Sotheby's 1992, recto) to see the improvement of contrast of the faded writing observed in ultraviolet photography as opposed to what is seen in the ordinary colour photography.

Location
Principally at al-Maktaba al-Sharqiyya and Dār al-Makhṭūtāt, Ṣanʿāʾ, Yemen. Also at the David Collection, Copenhagen, and other private collections.

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